When one wishes to visit the legendary places of inkas, he can find the most scenic places to go and find out how these people created a civilization of the woods.
According to archaeologists, the Incas have inherited a lot from previous civilizations and from the neighboring nations. In the history there were a number of civilizations of the Incas are found in South America. These were
- The Moche: they were known for colored ceramics and irrigation systems.
- Wari: this Aymara speaking state was the model of the Inka Empire, with a different language.
- Chimu living in the city of Chan Chan, they were famous for pottery and architecture.
- Nazca : they were known for creation of Nazca lines, as well as its system of underground water pipes and pottery.
- Pukin: known for the civilization of Tiwanaku, they were located to the east of Lake Titicaca.
- Chachapoyas: they were also called “Machu Picchu of the North”. They have terrifying fortress called “Kuelap” and were known as the Warriors of the clouds.
Expansion of Inkas
After creating the territory of their country, they keep on expanding constantly. Inka Yauar Uakak had created regular army for the empire and Inka Pachacuti was flourished in his era. before him the Inkas were just one of many Indian tribes in the typical town Cuzco. Most of the land controlled by the Inkas, were conquered by Pachacuti and his son Tupac Inka Yupanqui. The rulers of Huascar and Atahualpa were sons of Huayna Capac. They began a war to conquer the rest of empire and with the help of the Spaniards, Atahualpa won the war.
The Inkas conquered their neighboring tribes by using its strong and numerous armies and by attracting the elite conquer regions. Before taking military action three of the proposed conquers the region voluntarily join the empire. All the conquered tribes were forced to learn the language Quechua, follow their customs and administered their own laws. For Inkas, local handicrafts and costumes were very important so they aimed to preserve the origin and social status of Tawantinsuyu.
The Inkas has vast architectural back ground. They mainly focused on precision and functionality in their architecture. Their basic work is with the use of stones. The stones are fitted with great precision that is not found in human history. They focus more on functionality in their architects then decoration. The combination of trapezoid shaped stones and their constructions gave itself a beautiful essence.
The Inkas built work is all with the medium of stone. The rocks are limestone or granite which ever nearly available. The rocks were brought to the Ollantaytambo village from one side of the Urubamba Valley. At Urubamba Valley big blocks were broken, trimmed, shaped and then brought to the complex across the Urubamba River. The trapezoid shapes are dominant in Inka architecture which is gracefully proportioned. They look beautifully decorated as well as functionally they serve well.
The rectangular block which has to be fitted has a bottom, top, and two ends. They must be in the shape so that they fit to their bedrock seat and the neighboring stones in the wall. Initially the top and bottom sides are cut and shaped for any particular fit. After that the seat and front in the basic stones must be craved to fit this block. For this purpose the block was hanged over the stone on which it is to be seated. If the stone is very heavy then it was a big problem. But this problem was managed by logs, supporting up by leaning in diagonally from the front and back sides. With the help of a scribing device, the hanged block is outlined according to stone below. To achieve accuracy the angular relationship between the upper stone and the lower stones must remain constant; this could be done through the use of a plumb bob strung through the triangular scribe.
The way, Inka cut stone without using any metal tools is still unknown. But this is sure that they cut and shaped the stones with the help of stone tools. The limited use of bronze or copper tools might be possible for cutting the hard rock. First the holes were made in the stone in the line from which was supposed to be broken. Those holes would probably be made through metal tool. It is an assumption that to split the rock the Inkas used the method of placing wooden wedges placed in cracks, then soaked in water, until the expanding wood split the rock. Mostly the stones were easily detached from the bedrock. After detached from the bedrock, stones could be trimmed by striking with stone hammer. At stonework of Inkas those marks are visible.
The method of drill holes in rock is also found in Inka architecture, from the walls in Machu Picchu. How they did that is not known. It is possible that the holes were drilled using some rod shaped stone.
The stone cutting of Inkas into rectangular and trapezoid blocks, its drilling holes through hard rock and their fitting combination is no doubt nonparallel to any human work and the reason for its fame. The magnificence and brilliance of Inka stone cutting is demonstrated more by the presence of the famous “twelve-cornered stone”. It showed the ability of Inkas stone cutting in to a unique shapes and strength of fitting stones together. Such an incredible work is also found in a wall of the palace of the Inka Roca.
Scribing and Coping Technique
Scribing and coping method was adopted by the Inkas to fix the stones. Stones are cut into different shapes like wonderful jigsaw-puzzle or dove-tail. Such logs and their corners are carefully fitted together with little or no gap between the cut logs.
The scribing and coping might be the only technique which can be thought as a sensible explanation to the ambiguity of the Inka stone shaping technique. All the stone shaping processes require a lot of work and great work force. That is the reason where only the load-bearing surfaces and vertical joints which are visible are tightly fitted. Any leftover gap between the stone is being filled with residue.
The Inkas gave great importance to their very finest stonework found in their most important buildings, their temples. Inwards sloping is employed in the construction of temple walls. Finely cut ashlars were built in progressive pattern that get thinner upwards. Read the full story